WEMSK26:The Bible


                      WEMSK26 -- The Bible

This WEMSK is devoted to the Bible, expressly not to commentary on
the Bible nor to paraphrases, whichw will be treated elsewhere.
Thus, there is no treatment of Otfrid, the Heliand, the Melokhem-
Bukh, poeticizations of Psalms, rhyming Bibles.

1. Surveys:

a. The Cambridge History of the Bible. Vol. 2, The West from the
Fathers to the Reformation, ed. G. W. H. Lampe (Cambridge: CUP,
1969).  Probably your first port of call. Note particularly the
treatments of the Bible in England, Germany, France, Italy, and
Spain, which I shall not in general mention again below.

b. Hans Rost, Die Bibel im Mittelalter (Augsburg:
Kommissions-Verlag M. Seitz, 1939). Very good source on such things
as the bible moralisee, the Biblia pauperum, etc. Covers the whole
gamut of our subject. Remember to look at it.

c. Le moyen age et la Bible, ed. Pierre Riche and Guy Lobrichon.
Bible de tous les temps 4 (Paris, 1984). Particularly "Versions et
revisions du texte biblique," by Laura Light, pp. 55-93. A
collection of articles covering the entire field. An Italian
abbreviation has been published.

d. Biblia patristica. Index des citations et allusions bibliques
dans la litterature patristique. Centre d'analyse et de
documentatlon patristiques, Universite de Strasbourg. (Paris,1975-
). For citations of the Bible in the early period; can be quite
useful; now includes, for example, Ambrose and Ambrosiaster.

e. Beryl Smalley, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages, 2d ed.
(Oxford: Blackwell, 1952). Reprinted a number of times, e.g. Notre
Dame Paperback 39 (1964).

f. Robert E. McNally, The Bible in the Early Middle Ages.
Woodstock Papers 4 (Westminster MD: Newman, 1959).  A good quick
read.  Remember his bibliographies, 83 ff.

2. Bibliography:

a. George S. Glanzman and Joseph A. Fitzmayer, An Introductory
Bibliography for the Study of Scripture. Woodstock Papers No. 5
(Westminster: The Newman Press, 1962). Terribly out of date, but a
good start. Quite general.

b. Andre Vernet, La Bible au moyen age: bibliographie, avec la
collaboration d'Anne-Marie Genevois (Paris: Editions du CNRS,
1989). Good break-down. 960 + items. Can be quite loose; do not
trust his spelling of the German.

c. Etudes bibliques, ed. Pierre Petitmengin et al., 2d ed. (Paris:
ENS, 1980).  Good general bibliography.

d. Friedrich Stegmueller, Repertorium biblicum medii aevi, 11 vols.
(Madrid: Instituto Francisco Suarez, 1950-).  Outstanding resource.

e. Codices Latini Antiquiores, ed. E. A. Lowe, 11 vols. (Oxford:
Clarendon, 1934-71.  Outstanding resource. Use it to supplement
Stegmueller or to look up any early Latin Bible.

3. Encyclopedias:

a. It is understood that you will consult the encyclopedias, such
as the Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages and Lexikon des
Mittelalters, both of which have excellent articles on the Bible
and versions thereof. Particularly good: Theologische
Realenzyklopaedie, "Bibel," 6.1-377.

b. James Hastings, ed., Dictionary of the Bible, 5 vols.
(Edinburgh: Clark, 1898-1904). Signed articles with bibliographies.
Old, but still worth consulting; you may be able to find a copy
cheap in an old bookstore. Available also in a handy one-volume
edition: Dictionary of the Bible, ed. James Hastings, rev. ed.
Frederick C. Grant and H. H. Rowley (NY: Scribner's, 1963.

c. Fulcran Gregroire Vigouroux and Louis Pirot, Dictionnaire de la
Bible, 5 vols (Paris: Letouzey, 1907-72).  Supplement by Pirot
still in progress, numerous vols.  It is hard to imagine anything
on the Bible you could not find in Vigouroux.

4. Latin versions. See the overview in Patrology, vol. 4, ed.
Angelo di Berardino (& Johannes Quasten), tr. Placid Solari.
Augustinian Patristic Institute - Rome (Westminister, MD: Christian
Classics, 1988), "The Translations. Jerome & Rufinus," by Jean
Gribomont, pp. 195-254 -- Bonifatius Fischer, "Das NT in
lateinischer Sprache. Der gegenwaertige Stand seiner Erforschung
...," Die alten Uebersetzungen des Neuen Testaments, die
Kirchenvaeterzitate und Lektionare, ed. Kurt Aland. Arbeiten zur
neutestamentlichen Textforschung (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1972), 1-92.

a. The Old Latin versions other than the Vulgate are often referred
to as Vetus Latina, Itala, Africana, now even Hispana.  It can
often be quite difficult to separate them, and the "texts" are
often recovered mainly from citations of them in the Fathers and
the liturgy. A useful survey is provided by Bruce M. Metzger, "The
Old Latin Versions," in his The Early Versions of the New Testament
(Oxford: Clarendon, 1977), 285-330. Sabatier and Juelicher (Itala)
are the texts to use, but there are also "lectionary" texts and

1. F. C. Burkitt, The Old Latin and the Itala. Texts and Studies,
ed. J. Armitage Robinson, 4.3 (Cambridge: CUP, 1896).

b. Vulgate. To paraphrase A. Juelicher, "Die Vulgata hat gar wild
gewuchert," and there are various forms of it. Mostly, you will not
need to worry about which Vulgate you use.  Most people have opted
for the Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos version, which used to be
quite reasonable in price: Biblia Vulgata iuxta Vulgatam
Clementinam, ed. A. Colunga and L. Turrado, 3d ed. BAC 14 (Madrid:
Editoral Catolica, 1959).  If you frequent used bookstores, you can
find one at a reasonable price.  The Vulgate is also available
online; use your browser. If you have the Cetedoc CD-ROM or Migne
(under Jerome's works, vols. 28-29), you have a Vulgate available.
If you need an English translation, use the Douay-Rheims.  I am
looking at: The Holy Bible. The Catholic Bible. Douay-Rheims
Version (NY: Benzinger Brothers, 1941). It is also available on the
net; use your browser.

1. Samuel Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate pendant les premiers
siecles du moyen age (Paris: Hachette, 1893; repr. NY: Burt
Franklin, 1958; Hildesheim, 1976). Old, but still the best.

2. Hans H. Glunz, The History of the Vulgate in England from Alcuin
to Roger Bacon (Cambridge: CUP, 1933).

3. For finicking purposes: Biblia sacra iuxta vulgatam versionem
... iussu Pii PP.XI cura et studio monachorum Sancti Benedicti ...
Aidano Gasquet S. R. E. cardinale edita (Rome, 1926-).  In
progress. OT.

4. Novum Testamentum DN Iesu Christi latine secundum sancti
Hieronymi, ed. John Wordsworth and Henry J. White, 3 vols. (Oxford:
Clarendon, 1889-1954).  Also available in a handy, one-volume
version, without extensive textual notes: Editio minor, corr. ed.
(Oxford: Clarendon, 1920). NT.

5. Biblia sacra iuxta vulgatam versionem, ed. Bonifatius Fischer et
al., 3d ed. (Stuttgart:   , 1980).  This is the `standard' edition,
and the one most frequently encountered on the net.

6. If you need a concordance: Francois Pascal Dutripon,
Concordantiae Bibliorum sacrorum Vulgatae editionis ad
recognitionem jussu Sixti Pontificis Maximi (Paris: Berlin-Mandar,
1838) is frequently recommended, but there are many others. There
is a handy, one-volume: Concordantiarum SS. Scripturae Manuale, by
de Raze, de Lachaud and Flandrin (Paris: Lecoffre, 1929).

See also the section on Irish, below.

5. Old English:

a. Minne Cate Morrell, A Manual of Old English Biblical Materials
(Knoxville: UTennesseePress, 1965). A good survey.  Of course,
nowadays one can go through the Toronto materials.

b. Albert S. Cook, Biblical Quotations in Old English Prose Writers
(London: Macmillan, 1898). -- Biblical Quotations in Old English
Prose Writers, Second Series. Yale Bicentennial Publications (NY:
Scribner's, 1903).

6. Middle English.

a. Mary W. Smyth, Biblical Quotations in Middle English Literature
before 1350. Yale Studies in English (NY: Holt, 1911). A sequel to

b. James H. Morey, Book and Verse: A Guide to Middle English
Biblical Literature. Illinois Medieval Studies (Urbana, IL:
University of Illinois Press, 2000). An excellent guide.

7. OHG and MHG (including Low German):

a. Still the best survey is that of Wilhelm Walther, Die deutsche
Bibeluebersetzung des Mittelalters, 3 pts. in 1 (Braunschweig:
Hellmuth Wollermann, 1889-1892; rpt. Nieuwkoop, 1966).

b. Friedrich Maurer, Studien zur mittelhochdeutschen
Bibeluebersetzung vor Luther. Germanistische Bibliothek, 2.
Abteilung, Untersuchungen und Texte 26 (Heidelberg: Winter, 1929).

c. Kenneth A. Strand, German Bibles before Luther; the Story of 14
High-German Editions (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1966). Thin. Printed

d. Kenneth A. Strand, Early Low-German Bibles; the Story of 4 pre-
Lutheran Editions (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1967). Also thin.

e. Cola Minis, Bibliographie zu den altmittel- und
altniederfraenkischen Psalmen und Glossen. Beschreibende
Bibliographien 2 (Amsterdam, 1971).

8. Old Norse. For Old Norse we do have a kind of Old Testament in
the Stjorn, and we can piece together a Bible from quotations.

a. Stjorn, gammelnorsk Bibelhistorie, fra Verdens Skabelse til det
babyloniske Fangenskab, ed. C. R. Unger (Christiania: Feilbeerg &
Landmark, 1862).

b. Reidar Astes, Et bibelverk fra middelalderen: studier i Stjorn,
2 vols. (Oslo: Novus, 1987).

c. Biblical Quotation in Old Icelandic-Norwegian Religious
Literature. By Ian J. Kirby. Volume 1: Text (Stofnun Arna
Magnussonar a Islandi, Rit 9.) (Reykjavik: Stofnun Arna
Magnussonar, 1976. Volume 2: Introduction (Stofnun Arna
Magnussonar a Islandi, Rit 10.) (Reykjavik: Stofnun Arna
Magnussonar, 1980. See the review by Marchand, JEGP 83 (1984),305-

d. Ian J. Kirby, Bible translation in Old Norse (Geneva: Droz,
1986). A truncated version of the above.

e. For Old Swedish, there is a usable short survey in: Ny
illustrerad svensk litteraturhistoria, ed. E. N. Tigerstedt, vol.
1 (Stockholm: Natur och Kultur, 1967), 211-213; 392. See the
editions by G. E. Klemming, Svenska medeltidens bibel-arteten I-II.
Samlingar utgivna af Svenska Fornskriftssaellskapet 9 (1848-53) --
Apostlagaerningarna in his Klosterlaesning (22, 1877-78) -- and his
Fem Mose Boecker.

9. Romance:

a. Samuel Berger, La Bible romane au moyen age (Bibles provencales,
vaudoises, catalanes, italiennes, castillanes et portuguaises)
(Geneva: Slatkine, 1977). Reprints of articles from Romania, 1889-

b. S. Heinemann, Oratio Dominica Romanica. Das Vaterunser in den
romanischeen Sprachen von den Anfaengen bis ins 16. Jahrhundert
(Tuebingen: Niemeyer, 1988).

10. Old French:

a. Samuel Berger, La Bible francaise au moyen age (Paris: Hachette,
1884; repr. Geneva: Slatkine, 1967).

11. Provencal:

a. Peter Wunderli, Die okzitanischen Bibeluebersetzungen des
Mittelalters. Geloeste und ungeloeste Fragen. Analecta Romanica 24
(Frankfurt, 1969).

b. A very nice handy survey: Genevieve Brunel-Lobrichon, "Les
traductions de la Bible en ancien occitan," in La bibbia in
italiano (see below), 247-254.  Seems to have missed Wunderli, but
does mention Medtextler Roy Harris (251 f.) with praise, comme il

12. Spanish (& Catalan):

a. Morreale in the Cambridge History of the Bible.

b. Margherita Morreale, "Alcune considerazioni sulla Bibbia in
volgare, con un aggiornamento del saggio `Vernacular Bible in
Spain,' (Cambridge History of the Bible)," in La Bibbia in italiano
(see next section), 255-290.

c. The Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies has a CD-ROM which
contains three Spanish Bibles, and Spud would not forgive me if I
failed to mention: El nuevo testamento segun el manuscrito
escurialense I-I-6, ed. Thomas Montgomery and Spurgeon W. Baldwin.
Anejos del Boletin de la Real Academia Espannola 22 (Madrid, 1970).

13. Italian:

a. La Bibbia in italiano tra medioevo e rinascimento.  Atti del
Convegno internazionale Firenze, 8-9 novembre, 1996, ed. Lino
Leonardi (Florence: SISMEL, 1998).

14. Irish:

a. James F. Kenney, The Sources for the Early History of Ireland.
Ecclesiastical. Records of Civilization. Sources and Studies 11
(NY: Columbia UP, 1929; repr. with additions by Ludwig Bieler [NY:
Octagan Books, 1966]). Outstanding.

b. Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, Thesaurus Palaeeohibernicus.
Vol. 1, "Biblical Glosses and Scholia" (Cambridge: CUP, 1901.

c. J. Quigley, "The History of the Irish Bible," Irish Church
Quarterly 10 (1917), 49-69.

d. A. Cordoliani, "Le texte de la Bible en Irlande du Ve au IXe
siecle," Revue Biblique 57 (1950), 5-.

e. The Proceedings of the Irish Biblical Association (1976-) often
contain works on our subject.  Particularly useful is the "Hiberno-
Latin Bulletin" by Martin McNamara. Vol. 1 contains: Joseph F.
Kelly, "The Hiberno-Latin Study of the Gospel of Luke," -- Peter
Doyle, "The Latin Bible in Ireland," 30-45 -- B. Grogan,
"Eschatological Teacching of the Early Irish Church," -- F.
MacDonncha, "Medieval Irish Homilies," -- Bernhard Bischoff,
"Turning Points in the History of Latin Exegesis in the Early
Middle Ages," 95-160 -- Joseph F. Kelly, "Bibliography on Hiberno-
Latin Biblical Text," 161-64.

f. The Hiberno-Latin Newsletter from the Society for Hiberno-Latin
Studies (1986-; now published by Cetedoc) is a goldmine filled with
articles to keep you up to date.

g. As we have seen in other cases, the text of our Bible often has
to be eked out through quotations. See Martin McNamara, Studies on
Texts of Early Irish Latin Gospels (AD 600-1200). Instrumenta
patristica 20 (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1990). This, of course, refers to
the Latin texts in Ireland.

h. D. N. Dumville, "Biblical Apocrypha and the Early Irish. A
Preliminary Investigation," Royal Irish Academy Procedings, Section
C, 73, no. 8 (1973), 299-338.

i. Martin McNamara, The Apocrypha in the Irish Church (Dublin:
Dominican Publishers, 1975).

j. St. John D. Seymour, "Notes on Apocrypha in Ireland," Royal
Irish Academy Procedings, Section C, 37 (1924-27), 107-117.

k. Michael Lapidge and R. Sharpe, A bibliography of Celtic-Latin
literature, 400-1200. Ancillary publications 1. (Dublin: Royal
Irish Academy, 1985).

l. The Scriptures and Early Medieval Ireland, Proceedings of the
1993 Conference for Hiberno-Latin Studies, Instrumenta patristica
31 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1999). With two useful appendices: "Index to
References to Items Listed in Lapidge & Sharpe," and "Guide to
Manuscripts Cited in Wendepunkte."

15. Hebrew. This has grown rather long, so I will leave out the
Hebrew Bibles, to be taken up later under Medieval Hebrew, but see
Herman Hailperin, Rashi and the Christian Scholars (Pittsburgh:
University of Pittsburgh Press, 1963) for a good introduction into
the cooperation of Jewish and Christian Bible scholars and the
search for hebraica veritas in the Middle Ages.