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New Saints of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries:
A Bibliography

Compiled by Thomas Head
Hunter College and the Graduate Center, CUNY

Contents: 1) General historical studies; 2) General studies of religious history; 3) Overviews of later medieval hagiography; 4) New saints in traditional molds (1): Episcopal saints; 5) New saints in traditional molds (2): Monastic reformers; 6) New saints in traditional molds (3): Royal saints; 7) New saints in traditional molds (4): Martyrs and holy war; 8) New saints in new molds (1): Lay saints; 9) New saints in new molds (2): Hermits; 10) New saints in new molds (3): The New Monasticism; 11) Canonization; 12) Marriage and sanctity.

General historical studies.

Richard Southern, The Making of the Middle Ages (New Haven, 1953) is a fascinating, if highly personal, introduction to the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Robert Bartlett, The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950-1350 (Princeton, 1993) presents an ambitious and challenging thesis about the development and dispersion of certain social practices which constituted medieval Europe. Some useful surveys include: Christopher Brooke, Europe in the Central Middle Ages, 950-1158, second edition (New York, 1987); John Mundy, Europe in the High Middle Ages, 1150-1309, second edition (New York, 1991); Malcolm Barber, The Two Cities: Medieval Europe, 1050-1320 (London, 1992).

The following are regional surveys for the entire later middle ages. On France: Elizabeth Hallam, Capetian France, 987-1328 (London, 1980); Jean Dunbabin, France in the Making, 843-1180 (Oxford, 1985); Georges Duby, France in the Middle Ages 987-1460: From Hugh Capet to Joan of Arc (Oxford, 1991). On Germany: Geoffrey Barraclough, Medieval Germny 911-1250, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1938) and The Origins of Modern Germany (second edition, Oxford, 1947); Horst Fuhrmann, Germany in the High Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1986); Alfred Haverkamp, Medieval Germany, 1056-1273 (Oxford, 1988). On Italy: Giovanni Tabacco, The Struggle for Power in Medieval Italy. Structures of Political Rule (Cambridge, 1989); J. K. Hyde, Society and Politics in Medieval Italy: The Evolution of the Civil Life, 1000-1350 (London, 1973); John Larner, Italy in the Age of Dante and Petrarch, 1216-1380) (London, 1980); Donald Matthew, The Norman Kingdom of Sicily (Cambridge, 1992). On Iberia: Joseph O'Callaghan, A History of Medieval Spain (Ithaca, NY, 1975); Angus MacKay, Spain in the Middle Ages: From Frontier to Empire, 1000-1500 (London, 1977); Bernard Reilly, The Medieval Spains (Cambridge, 1993). On England: Christopher Brooke, From Alfred to Henry III: 871-1272 (Norton Library History of England, 2; London, 1961); George Holmes, The Later Middle Ages, 1272-1485 (Norton Library History of England, 3; London, 1962); Colin Platt, Medieval England. A Social History and Archaeology from the Conquest to 1600 A. D. (London, 1988); Marjorie Chibnall, Anglo-Norman England, 1066-1166 (Oxford, 1986); Pauline Stafford, Unification and Conquest: A Political and Social History of England in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries (London, 1989). On the Celtic lands: Robin Frame, The Political Development of the British Isles, 1100-1400 (Oxford, 1990); Robin Frame, Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369 (Dublin, 1981); Art Cosgrove (ed.), New History of Ireland, 2: Medieval Ireland, 1169-1534 (Oxford, 1987); Geoffrey Barrow, Kingship and Unity: Scotland 1000-1306 (London, 1981); David Walker, Medieval Wales (Cambridge, 1990). On Scandinavia: P. H. Sawyer, Kings and Vikings: Scandinavia and Europe, A. D. 700-1100 (London, 1982); Jesse Byock, Medieval Iceland. Society Sagas, and Power (Berkeley, 1988); Birgit Sawyer and Peter Sawyer, Medieval Scandinavia: From Conversion to Reformation, circa 800-1500 (Minneapolis, 1993). On the Slavic lands: Jean Sedlar, East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500 (Seattle, 1994); John Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans. A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century (Ann Arbor, 1983) and The Late Medieval Balkans. A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbor, 1987); John Fennell, The Crisis of Medieval Russia, 1200-1304 (London, 1983).

General studies of religious history.

For a highly servicable introduction to the religious history of the eleventh and twelfth centuries in English, see Colin Morris, The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250 (Oxford, 1989). Gerd Tellenbach, The Church in Western Europe from the Tenth to the Early Twelfth Century, trans. Timothy Reuter (Cambridge, 1993), pp. 135-353 is highly idiosyncratic and less useful. The best available survey is Apogée de la papauté et expansion de la chrétienté (1054-1274), ed. André Vauchez (Paris, 1993). The relevant volumes of the Histoire de l'Eglise depuis les origines jusqu'à nos jours still have much to commend them: Augustin Fliche, La réforme grégorienne et le reconquête chrétienne (1057-1123) (Paris, 1946); Augustin Fliche, Raymond Foreville, and J. Rousset de Pina, Du premier concile du Latran à l'avènement d'Innocent III (1123-1198), 2 vols. (Paris, 1944-53). The relevant chapters of Jean Leclercq, François Vandenbroucke and Louis Bouyer, La spiritualité du moyen âge (Paris, 1961; ET: The Spirituality of the Middle Ages [New York, 1968]) are superb. For more specific information on related topics, the Dictionnaire de spiritualité, ascetique et mystique, doctrine et histoire, eds. Joseph de Guibert, Marcel Viller, F. Cavallera, et al., 16 vols. (Paris, 1937-present) is a particularly useful resource for this period. And also see collections of essays: I Laici nella 'Societas Christianas' dei Secoli XI e XII (Miscellanea del Centro di studi medioevali, 5; Milan, 1968); Le istituzioni ecclesiastiche della "Societas Christiana" dei secoli XI-XII. Diocesi, pievi e parrocchie (Miscellanea del Centro di studi medioevali, 8; Milan, 1977); La Cristianità dei secoli XI e XII in Occidenta: Coscienza e Strutture di una società (Miscellanea del Centro di studi medioevali, 10; Milan, 1983).

Monasticism is central to a consideration both of Christianity and of sanctity during this period. Jean Leclercq, The Love of Learning and the Desire for God. A Study of Monastic Culture, trans. Catharine Misrahi, second edition (New York: 1977) is largely concerned with this period and provides an introduction to both the "black" and the "white" monks which is brilliant and sympathetic. David Knowles, The Monastic Order in England, second edition (Cambridge, 1962) is much more effective as a survey than the title would indicate. More general surveys include: David Knowles, Christian Monasticism (New York, 1969); Marcel Pacaut, Les ordres monastiques et religieux au Moyen Age (Paris, 1970); C. N. L. Brooke and Wim Swaan, The Monastic World, 1000-1300 (London, 1974); C. H. Lawrence, Medieval Monasticism. Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages (London, 1984). For general bibliographical guidance to secondary literature, see Giles Constable, Medieval Monasticism: A Select Bibliography (Toronto Medieval Bibliographies, 6; Toronto, 1976). Much has traditionally been made of a "crisis" in monasticism during this period: Charles Dereine, "Odon de Tournai et la crise du cénobitisme au XIe siècle," Revue du moyen âge latin, 4 (1948), pp. 137-54; Jean Leclercq, "La crise du monachisme aux XIe et XIIe siècles," Bullettino dell'Istituto storico italiano per il medio evo, 70 (1958), pp. 19-41; Norman Cantor, "The Crisis of Western Monasticism, 1050-1130," American Historical Review, 66 (1960-1), pp. 47-67. The thesis has effectively been dismembered by John Van Engen, "The 'Crisis of Cenobitism' Reconsidered: Benedictine Monasticism in the Years 1050-1150," Speculum, 61 (1986), pp. 269-304.

Poverty and the apostolic life are two of the main themes of new religious movements of this period. On the social history of poverty, see Michel Mollat, The Poor in the Middle Ages: An Essay in Social History, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (New Haven, CT, 1986). On the development of poverty into a religious ideal, see the powerful essays of Marie-Dominique Chenu, Nature Man and Society in the Twelfth Century, trans. Jerome Taylor and Lester Little (New York, 1969). Lester Little has provided a convincing thesis about the importance of this ideal in a wide variety of social and religious changes in Religious Poverty and the Profit Economy in Medieval Europe (Ithaca, NY, 1978).

There was an intense, although somewhat brief, scholarly vogue for discussing the "popular religion" of the middle ages. General works on that subject generally ignored the early middle ages and are more relevant for the period after the Gregorian reform. Despite problems with the concept itself, the following books have much good in them which concerns hagiography and the cult of saints: Raoul Manselli, La religion populaire au moyen âge. Problèmes de méthode et d'histoire (Montréal, 1975); Etienne Delaruelle, La Pieté populaire au moyen âge (Turin, 1975); Bernard Plongeron (ed.), La Religion populaire dans l'occident chrétien. Approches historiques (Paris, 1975); M.-H. Vicaire (ed.), La religion populaire en Languedoc du XIIIe à la moitié du XIVe siècle (Cahiers de Fanjeaux, 11; Toulouse, 1976); James Obelkevich (ed.), Religion and the People, 800-1700 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1979); Rosalind Brooke, and Christopher Brooke, Popular Religion in the Middle Ages. Western Europe 1000-1300 (London, 1984). On the concept, see also Jean-Claude Schmitt, "'Religion populaire' et culture folklorique," Annales ESC, 31 (1976), pp. 941-53.

Heresy of a dissenting (as opposed to a doctrinal) nature began to be (or be seen by church authorities) as problematic in the eleventh century, a trend which increased throughout the later middle ages. Heresy, of more accurately the descriptions thereof, often serve as a sort of negative image of sanctity. R. I. Moore, The Formation of a Persecuting Society. Power and Deviance in Western Europe, 950-1250 (London, 1987) provides a powerful thesis concerning the importance of heresy to the development of ecclesiastical power and government during this period. More general surveys of the topic include: Jeffrey Russell, Dissent and Reform in the Early Middle Ages (Berkeley, 1965); R. I. Moore, The Origins of European Dissent (London, 1977); Malcolm Lambert, Medieval Heresy. Popular Movements from Bogomil to Hus (London, 1977); G. Zanella, Itinerari ereticali: Patari e Catari tra Rimini e Verona (Rome, 1986). For bibliographic orientation, see Carl Berkhout and Jeffrey Russell, Medieval Heresies: A Bibliography, 1960-1979 (Toronto, 1981).

Overviews of later medieval hagiography.

André Vauchez, La sainteté en occident aux derniers siècles du moyen âge d'après les procès de canonisation et les documents hagiographiques (Rome, 1981) has set the agenda for analyzing hagiography and the cult of saints in the later middle ages. As the title suggests, he works largely from the new genre of the canonization processus. Vauchez' collections of essays enlarge on many individual points and texts: Les laics du Moyen age: Pratiques et expériences religieuses (Paris, 1987; ET as The Laity in the Middle Ages: Religious Beliefs and Devotional Practices, trans. Margery Schneider [Notre Dame, 1993]); Ordini mendicanti e società italiana, XIII-XV secolo (Milan, 1990). Aviad Kleinberg, Prophets in Their Own Country: Living Saints and the Making of Sainthood in the Later Middle Ages (Chicago, 1992) has employed a slightly different approach to the processus. It is an approach less novel and more indebted to Vauchez than the author would suggest (one would be advised to consult Vauchez' review of this book in the Revue d'histoire de l'Eglise de France), but nonetheless has some very interesting analysis.

An earlier approach to the development of the ideals of sanctity in the later middle ages and early modern period depended on the statistical analysis of data derived from the hagiographic sources. The method was first developed by sociologists: Pierre Delooz, Sociologie et canonisation (Collections scientifique de la faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège, 30; La Haye, 1969); John Broderick, "A Census of the Saints (993-1955)," American Ecclesiastical Review, 135 (1966), 87-115. Later used in part by a number of medieval historians, its fullest development is to be found in Donald Weinstein and Rudolph Bell, Saints and Society. The Two Worlds of Latin Christendom, 1000-1700 (Chicago, 1982). For a brief but convincing critique of such methodology, see Henri Deroche, André Vauchez, and Jacques Maître, "Sociologie de la sainteté canonisé," Archives de sociologie des religions, 30 (1970), pp. 109-15. Aviad Kleinburg also dissects the statistical method in the above-mentioned work.

New Saints in Traditional Molds (1): Episcopal saints.

There are numerous vitae of episcopal saints, most of them to some degree involved in the movements of ecclesiastical reform, written between 900 and 1200. Relatively little attention has been paid to these documents as hagiography, as opposed to sources for political and institutional history. The pioneering work of Ludwig Zoepf, Das Heiligen-Leben im 10. Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 1908) remains not only useful, but the fullest study of the earlier texts.

Most of the early episcopal saints came from the Empire and Lotharingia. Thus they and their lives are treated in the extensive literature on the "Reichskirch" or "Imperial Church System." The classic statement remains Ludwig Santifaller, Zur Geschichte des ottonisch-salischen Reichskirchensystems, second edition (Vienna, 1964). Useful summaries of more recent research may be found in Oskar Köhler, "Die Ottonische Reichskirche: Ein Forschungsbericht," in Adel und Kirche: Gerd Tellenbach zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. Josef Fleckenstein (Freiburg, 1968), pp. 141-204; Josef Fleckenstein, "Zum Begriff der ottonisch-salischen Reichskirche," Geschichte, Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft: Festschrift für Clemens Bauer (Berlin, 1974), pp. 61-71; Odilo Engels, "Der Reichsbischof in ottonischen und frühsalischen Zeit," in Irene Crusius (ed.), Beiträge zur Geschichte und Struktur der mittelalterliche Germania Sacra (Studien zur Germania Sacra, 17; 1989), pp. 135-76; Stefan Weinfurter (ed.), Die Salier und das Reich, 2: Die Reichskirche in der Salierzeit (Sigmaringen, 1991). A critique of the entire concept has been offered by Timothy Reuter, "The 'Imperial Church System' of the Ottonian and Salian Rulers: A Reconsideration," Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 33 (1982). See also the response by Josef Fleckenstein, "Problem und Gestalt der ottonisch-salishcen Reichskirchen," in Karl Schmid (ed.), Reich und Kirche vor dem Investiturstreit: Gerd Tellenbach zum achtzigsten Geburtstag (Sigmaringen, 1985), pp. 83-98.

General works on Ottonian hagiography include W. Hug, Elemente Biographie im Hochmittelalter. Untersuchungen zu Darstellungsform und Geschichtsbild der viten vom Anfang der Ottonen- bis in die Anfänge der Stauferzeit (Munich, 1957); Patrick Corbet, Les saints ottoniens. Sainteté dynastique, sainteté royale et sainteté féminine autour de l'an mil (Sigmaringen, 1986); Dieter von der Nahmer, Die lateinische Heiligenvita: Eine Einführung in die lateinische Hagiographie (Darmstadt, 1994); Pl. Dinter, "Die Armenfürsorge in Bischofsviten des 10. bis 12. Jahrhunderts," in Arbor amoena comis. Festschrift zum 25 jährhundert Bestehen des Mittellateinishce Seminar der Universität Bohn, ed. E. Könsgen (Stuttgart, 1990), pp. 133-142. H. Kallfelz (ed. and trans.), Lebensbeschreibungen einiger Bischöfe des 10.-12. Jahrhunderts (Darmstadt, 1973) includes German translations of several lives of episcopal saints, such as Bruno of Cologne, as well as extensive commentary on them.

Studies of individual saintly bishops include: Friedrich Lotter, Die Vita Brunonis des Ruotger. Ihre historiographische und ideengeschichtliche Stellung (Bonn, 1958); Hermann Bannasch, Das Bistum Paderborn unter den Bischöfen Rethar und Meinwerk (983-1036) (Studien und Quellen zur Westfälischen Geschichte, 12; Paderborn, 1972); Heribert Möller, Heribert, Kanzler Ottos III. und Erzbischof von Köln (Cologne, 1977); Horst Fuhrmann, "Neues zur Biographie des Ulrich von Zell (+1093)," in Person und Gemeinschaft im Mittelalter. Karl Schmid zum funfundsechzigsten Geburtstag, ed. Gerd Althoff, et al, (Sigmaringen, Thorbecke, 1988), pp. 369-378; A. Finck von Finckenstein, "Ulrich von Augsburg und die ottonische Kirchenpolitik in der Alemannia," in Früh- und hochmittelalterlicher Adel in Schwaben und Bayern (Sigmaringendorf, 1988), pp. 261-269; Bischof Ulrich von Augsburg, 890-973: Seine Zeit-sein Leben-seine Verehrung: Festschrift aus Anlass des tausendjährigen Jubiläums seiner Kanonisation im Jahre 993, ed. M. Weitlauff (Jarbuch des Vereins für Augsburger Bistumsgeschichte, 26-27; Augsburg 1992-1993); Bischof Otto I. von Bamberg: Reformer-Apostel de Pommern-Heiliger (1139 gestorben, 1189 heiliggesprochen) (Historischer Verein Bamberg, 125; Bamberg, 1989); G. Binding, "Bischof Benno II. von Osnabruck als archiectus et dispositor caementarii operis, architectoriae artis valde pertius," Zeitschrift des deutschen Vereins für Kunstwissenschaft, 44 (1990), pp. 53-66; Erwin Keller, Der heilige Konrad von Konstanz: Zur Tausendjahrfeier seines Todes (Karlsruhe, 1975); Helmut Maurer (ed.), Der heilige Konrad Bischof von Konstanz: Studien aus Anlass der tausendsten Wiederkehr seines Todesjahr (Frieburg, 1975).

Two sees which produced a number of saintly bishops are analyzed in: Helmut Maurer, Konstanz als ottonischer Bischofssitz (Studia zur Germania Sacra, 12; Göttingen, 1973); Jean-Louis Kupper, Liège et l'église imperiale. XIe-XIIe siècles (Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l'Université de Liège, 228; Paris, 1981). On a different side of the imperial bishops of this period, see Timothy Reuter, "Episcopi cum sua militia: The Prelate as Warrior in the Early Staufer Era," in Warriors and Churchmen in the High Middle Ages: Essays Presented to Karl Leyser, ed. Timothy Reuter (London, 1992), pp. 79-93.

Saintly bishops in Italy. A. Caretta, "Una nuova edizione dell 'Vita' di s. Gualtiero da Lodi," Archivio Storico Lodigiano, 108 (1989), pp. 101-40; Pietro Zerbi, Tra Milano e Cluny. Momenti di vita e cultura ecclesiastica nel sceolo XII (Italia Sacra, 28; Roma, 1991); Giorgio Cracco (ed.), Nuovi Studi ezzeliniani, 2 vols (Istituto storico italiano der il medio evo, Nuovi studi storici, 21; Rome, 1992); Cinzio Violante (ed.), Sant'Anselmo vescovo di Lucca (1073-1086) nel quadro delle trasformazioni sociali e della riforma ecclesiasta (Istituto storico italiano der il medio evo, Nuovi studi storici, 13; Rome 1993); Réginald Grégoire, San Ranieri di Pisa (1117-1160) in un ritratto agiografico inedito del secolo xiii (Biblioteca del Bollettino storico pisano, Collana storica, 36; Pisa: Pacini Editore, 1990); Anna Benvenuti Papi, Pastori di populo: Storie e leggende di vescovi e di città nell'Italia medievale (Politica e storia, 7; Florence: Arnaud, 1988); Luigi Canetti, Gloriosa civitas. Culto dei santi e società cittadina a Piacenza nel Medioevo (Cristianesimo antico e medievale, 4; Bologna, 1993); Oronzo Limone, Santi monaci e santi eremiti: Alla ricerca di un modello di perfezione nella letteratura dell'Apulia normanna (Galatina, 1988); Stefano Brunfani and Enrico Menesto, Nel segno del santo protettore: Ubaldo vescovo, taumaturgo, santo (Quaderni del "Centro per il collegamento deglli studi medievali e umanistici nell'Università di Perugia, 22; Perugia, 1990).

Saintly bishops in England. Dunstan: D. Dales, Dunstan: Saint and Statesman (Cambridge, 1988). Aethelwold: Bishop Aethelwold, His Career and Influence (Woodbridge, 1988). Wulfstan: Emma Mason, St. Wulfstan of Worcester, c. 1008-1095 (Oxford, 1990). Lanfranc of Bec: A. J. Macdonald, Lanfranc: A Study of His Life, Work and Writing, second edition (1944); Margaret Gibson, Lanfranc of Bec (Oxford, 1978); Anselm of Canterbury: R. W. Southern, Saint Anselm and his Biographer: a Study of Monastic Life and Thought, 1059-c.1130 (Cambridge, 1966) and Saint Anselm: A Portrait in a Landscape (Cambridge). Hugh of Lincoln: Adam of Eynsham, The Life of St Hugh of Lincoln (Magna Vita Sancti Hugonis), eds. Decima Douie and Hugh Farmer (London: Nelson, 1961-62); D. H. Farmer, Saint Hugh of Lincoln (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1985); Henry Mayr-Harting (ed.), St Hugh of Lincoln: Lectures Delivered at Oxford and Lincoln to Celebrate the Eighth Centenary of St Hugh's Consecration as Bishop of Lincoln (Oxford: Clarendon, 1987). The best known episcopal saint of the period was canonized as a martyr: David Knowles, Thomas Becket (London, 1970); Raymond Foreville, "Mort et survie de S. Thomas Becket," Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, 19 (1971), pp. 21-38; Raymond Foreville (ed.), Thomas Becket. Actes du Colloque international de Sédières (19-24 août 1973) (Paris, 1975); Frank Barlow, Thomas Becket (Berkeley, 1986); Thomas of Froidmont, Die Vita des heiligen Thomas Becket Erzbischof von Canterbury, ed. and trans. P. G. Schmidt (Schriften der wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Geisteswissenschaftliche Reihe, 8; Stuttgart, 1991).

New Saints in Traditional Molds (2): Monastic reformers.

Abbots of traditional "black" monasteries also emerged as saints in this period, particularly in association with the Lotharingian and Cluniac reforms. As above, Ludwig Zoepf, Das Heiligen-Leben im 10. Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 1908) remains useful on the earlier works.

The best survey of the Lotharingian reform remains the highly polemic work of Kassius Hallinger, Gorze-Kluny, 2 vols. (Rome, 1950-51). Also see Michel Margue, "Aspects politiques de la 'réforme' monastique en Lotharingie," Revue Bénédictine 108 (1988), 31-61. On Gerard of Brogne, see the essays collected in Revue Bénédictine, 70 (1960) and Daniel Misonne, "La restauration monastique de Gérard de Brogne," Naissance et fonctionenment des reseaux monastiques et canoniaux, (Centre European de Recherches sur les Congregations et Ordres Religieux, Travaux et Recherches, 1; Saint-Etienne, 1991), p. 117-123. On the saints associated with the abbey of Gorze, see Michel Parisse and Otto Oexle (eds.), L'Abbaye de Gorze au Xe siècle (Nancy, 1993). On hagiography written at various Lotharingian monasteries, see Jean Schroeder, Bibliothek und Schule der Abtei Echternach um die Jahrtausenwende (Publications de la Section historique de l'Institut G. D. de Luxembourg, 91; Luxemburg, 1977); Alan Dierkens, "La production hagiographique à Lobbes au Xe siècle," Revue Benedictine, 93 (1983), pp. 245-59.

The broadest survey of Cluny remains Guy de Valous, Le monachisme clunisien des origines au XVe siècles. Vie intérieure des monastères et organisation de l'ordre, 2 vols. (Ligugé, 1935; reprint Paris, 1970), which is usefully updated by H. E. J. Cowdrey, The Cluniacs and the Gregorian Reform (Oxford, 1970) and other specialist literature. The best introduction to Cluniac hagiography is Dominique Iogna-Prat, "Panorama de l'hagiographie abbatiale clunisienne," in Martin Heinzelmann (ed.), Manuscrits hagiographiques et travail des hagiographes (Beihefte der Francia, 24; Sigmaringen, 1992), pp. 77-118. On specific Cluniac abbots who were considered saints, see Barbara Rosenwein, Rhinoceros Bound. Cluny in the Tenth Century (Philadelphia, 1982) on Odo; Dominique Iogna-Prat, Agni Immaculati. Recherches sur les sources hagiographiques relatives à Saint Maieul de Cluny, 954-994 (Paris, 1988); Noreen Hunt, Cluny Under Saint Hugh, 1049-1109 (South Bend, Ind., 1967); Frank Barlow, "The Canonization and the Early Lives of Hugh I, Abbot of Cluny," Analecta Bollandiana, 98 (1980), pp. 297-334; P. and A. Kohnle, Abt Hugo von Cluny, 1049-1109 (Sigmaringen, 1993); Patrick Henriet, "Le dossier hagiographique de saint Maieul de Cluny: à propos d'un ouvrage récent," Le Moyen Age, 97 (1991), 79-82 and Patrick Henriet, "Saint Odilon devant la mort: sur quelques données implicites du comportement religieux au XIe siècle," Le moyen âge, 96 (1990), 227-44; Jacques Hourlier, Saint Odilon, abbé de Cluny (Louvain, 1964).

On other saintly abbots associated with the Cluniac movement: Neithard Bulst, Untersuchungen zu den Klosterreformen Wilhelms von Dijon (962-1031) (Pariser historische Studien, 11; Bonn 1973); Hubert Dauphin, Le Bienheureux Richard, abbé de Saint Vanne de Verdun (+1046) (Louvain, 1946); Edmond Ortigues and Dominque Iogna-Prat, "Raoul Glaber et l'historiographie clunisienne," Studi Medievali 26 (1985), pp. 537-572. At least one reforming abbot who died in the cause of reform was considered a martyr: Patrice Cousin, Abbon de Fleury-sur-Loire. Un savant, un pasteur, un martyr à la fin du Xe siècle (Paris, 1954); Anselme Davril, "Le Culte de Saint-Abbon au moyen âge," in Actes du colloque du millénaire de la fondation du prieuré de La Réole (Bordeaux, 1979), pp. 143-58.

On monastic reformers in Italy, see L. Fellder, "Saintété, gestion du patrimoine et reforme monastique en Italie à la fin du X siècle: la Vie de saint Aldemar de Bucchianico," Médiévales, 15 (1988), pp. 51-72; François Dolbeau, "Le dossier de saint Dominique de Sora d'Albéric du Mont Cassin à Jacques de Voragine," Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome, Moyen Age, 102 (1990), pp. 7-78.

New Saints in Traditional Molds (3): Royal saints.

The basic surveys are by Robert Folz, Les saints rois du moyen âge en occident (Paris, 1984) and Les saintes reines du moyen âge en occident (VIe-XIIIe siècles) (Subsidia hagiographica, 76; Brussels). Marc Bloch, Les rois thaumaturges. Etude sur le caractère surnaturel attribué à la puissance royale particulièrement en France et en Angleterre (Publications de la Faculté des lettres de l'Université de Strasbourg, 19; Strasbourg, 1924; ET as The Royal Touch: Sacred Monarchy and Scrofula in England and France, trans. J. E. Anderson [London, 1973]) remains essential on a particular aspect of royal holiness. Jürgen Petersohn (ed.), Politik und Heiligenverehrung im Hochmittelalter (Vorträge und Forschungen, 42; Sigmaringen: Jan Thorbecke, 1994) is a collection of regional studies of how dynasties cultivated the patronage of specific national or dynastic saints. Many of these were holy kings of an earlier generation. These essays provide very complete reviews of the available literature for varied kingdoms.

There are also numerous studies of individual holy kings or dynasties. On England: Susan Ridyard, The Royal Saints of Anglo-Saxon England (Cambridge, 1988). On Wales: Elissa Henkle, "The Saint as Secular Ruler: Aspects of Welsh Hagiography," Folklore, 98 (1987), pp. 226-32. On France: Robert-Henri Bautier, "L'Epitoma vitae regis Rotberti Pii, du moine Helgaud," Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Comptes rendus des séances de l'année 1963 Paris, 1964), pp. 361-71; Joel Rosenthal, "Edward the Confessor and Robert the Pious: 11th Century Kingship and Biography," Mediaeval Studies, 33 (1971), pp. 7-20; Claude Carozzi, "La Vie de Robert par Helgaud de Fleury, Historiographie et hagiographie," Annales de Bretagne et des Pays de l'Ouest, 87 (1980), pp. 219-36; Claude Carozzi, "Le roi et la liturgie chez Helgaud de Fleury," in Evelyne Patlagean and Pierre Riché (eds.), Hagiographie, cultures, et sociétés. IVe-XIIe siècles (Paris, 1981), pp. 417-432. On Germany: Patrick Corbet, Les saints ottoniens. Sainteté dynastique, sainteté royale et sainteté féminine autour de l'an Mil (Beihefte der Francia, 15; Sigmaringen, 1986); Klaus Guth, Die heiligen Heinrich und Kunigunde: Leben, Legende, Kult und Kunst (Bamberg, 1986); Herbert Paulhart, Die Lebensbeschreibung der Kaiserin Adelheid von Abt. Odilo von Cluny (Mitteilungen des Instituts für östereichische Geschichtsforschung, Ergänzungsband, 2.22; Graz, 1962); Die Lebensbeschreibungen der Königin Mathilde, ed. Bernd Schütte (Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scroptores rerum germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi, 66; Hannover, 1994) and Bernd Schutte, Untersuchungen zu den Lebensbeschreibugen der Königin Mathilde (Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Studien und Texte, 9; Hannover, 1994). On Scandinavia: Erich Hoffmann, Die Heiligen Könige bei den Angelsachsen und den skandinavischen Völkern. Königsheiliger und Königshaus (Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte Schleswig-Holsteins, 69; Neumünster, 1975). On the Hungary and the Slavic east: Norman Ingham, "The Sovereign as Martyr, East and West," Slavic and East European Journal, 17 (1973), 1-17; Gabor Klaniczay, The Uses of Supernatural Power: The Transformation of Popular Religion in Medieval and Early-Modern Europe, trans. Susan Singerman, ed. Karen Margolis (Princeton, 1990).

For further studies of the royal patronage of saints' cults, see Gabrielle Spiegel, "The Cult of Saint Denis and Capetian Kingship," Stephen Wilson (ed.), Saints and Their Cults (Cambridge, 1983), pp. 141-68; Thomas Vogtherr, Der König und der Heilige: Heinrich IV., der heilige Remaklus und die Mönche des Doppelklosters Stablo-Malmedy (Munich, 1990); Ursula Swinarski, Herrschen mit den Heiligen. Kirchenbesuche, Pilgerfahrten und Heiligenverehrung früh- und hoch-mittelalterlicher Herrscher (ca. 500-1200) (Bern, 1993).

New Saints in Traditional Molds (4): Martyrs and Holy War.

The development of the ideal of holy war into the crusades produced a new movement in the eleventh century, but that movement produced saints under the very traditional paradigm of martyr, not only in the Near East, but in Iberia as well. The best study of the development of the crusading ideal remains Carl Erdmann, Die Entstehung des Kreuzzungsgedankens (Forschungen zur Kirchen- und Geistesgeschichte, 6; Stuttgart, 1955; ET as The Origin of the Idea of Crusade, trans. Marshall Baldwin and Walter Goffart [Princeton, 1977]). On martyrs in the crusades, see particularly the work of Jean Flori: "Mort et martyre des guerriers vers 1100: l'exemple de la première croisade," Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, 34 (1991), pp. 121-39; "Guerre sainte et rétributions spirituelles dans la 2e moitié du XIe siècle," Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique, 85 (1990), pp. 617-49; "Pur eshalcier sainte crestienté. Croisade, guerre sainte et guerre juste dans les anceiennes chansons de geste française," Le Moyen Age, fifth series, 5 (1991), pp. 171-188; "Faut-il réhabiliter Pierre l'Ermite? (Une réévaluation des sources de la première croisade)," Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, 38 (1995), pp. 35-54. Marcus Bull, Knightly Piety and the Lay Response to the First Crusade: The Limousin and Gascony, c. 970-c.1130 (Oxford, 1993) has studied the relationship of the First Crusade to contemporary lay piety, while Christoph Maier, Preaching the Crusades: Mendicant Friars and the Cross in the Thirteenth Century (Cambridge, 1994) has discussed the relationship of the mendicant preaching ideal to the crusades. On the impact of the crusades on European Jewish communities, which produced non-Christian martyrs, see Robert Chazan, European Jewry and the First Crusade (Berkeley, 1988). The best short history of the crusades is Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Crusades (New Haven, 1987). More detail is provided by Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, 3 vols. (London, 1951-54).

New Saints in New Molds (1): Lay saints.

André Vauchez has charted the evolution of new, specifically lay ideals of sanctity in the high middle ages. For a convenient summary see his "Lay People's Sanctity in Western Europe: Evolution of a Pattern (Twelfth and Thirteenth centuries)," in Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski and Timea Szell, eds., Images of Sainthood in Medieval Europe (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), 21-32, as well as the collection of essays mentioned above. On the origins of these new ideals, see Derek Baker, "Vir Dei: secular sanctity in the early tenth century," in G.J. Cuming and Derek Baker, eds., Popular Belief and Practice (Cambridge, 1972), 41-53 and I. Deug-Su, "Note sull'agiografia del secolo X e la santità laicale," Studi medievali, 30 (1989), 143-62.

The earliest of the non-royal lay saints is Gerbert of Aurillac: F. Lotter, "Odos Vita des Grafen Gerald von Aurillac," in W. Lourdaux and Daniel Verhelst (eds.), Benedictine Culture, 750-1050 (Mediaevalia Lovaniensia, 1.11; Louvain, 1983); Stuart Airlie, "The Anxiety of Sanctity: St. Gerald of Aurillac and his Maker," Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 43 (1992), pp. 372-95.

The main location of lay saints in this period is Italy. Some studies include: D. Piazzi, Omobono di Cremona. Biografie dal xiii al xvi secolo. Edizione, traduzione e commento, (Cremona, 1991); Un santo laico dell'etä postgregoriana: Allucio da Pescia (1070 c.s.-1134). Religione e società nei territori di Lucca e della Valdinievole (Pubblicazioni del Dipartimento di medievistica dell'Universita di Pisa, 2; Rome, 1991); P. Racine, "Poverta e assistenza nel medioevo: l'esempio di Piacenza," Nuova Rivista Storica, 62 (1978), pp. 505-520 (on Raymond Palmarius).

On a fascinating early example of a lay female saints, see Isabelle Cochelin, "Evolution de la sainteté laïque: L'exemple de Juette de Huy (1158-1228)," Le Moyen Age, 95 (1989), pp. 397-417. Also see Michael Goodich, "The Politics of Canonization in the Thirteenth Century: Lay and Mendicant Saints," Church History, 44 (1975), 294-307.

New Saints in New Molds (2): Hermits.

Henrietta Leyser, Hermits and the New Monasticism. A Study of Religious Communities in Western Europe, 1000-1150 (London, 1984) provides a general introduction to the topic. For an intriguing Marxist interpretation of the phenomenon, see Ernst Werner, Pauperes Christi. Studien zu sozial-religiösen Bewegungen im Zeitalter des Reformpapsttums (Leipzig, 1956). The essays in L'eremitismo in occidente nei secoli XI e XII (Miscellanea del Centro di studi medioevali, 4; Milan, 1965) provide fuller details on the development of eremitic monasticism and ideals in this period. Henry Mayr-Harting, "Functions of a Twelfth-Century Recluse," History 60 (1975), pp. 337-352 applies Peter Brown's models directly to the eremitical hagiography of England. Johannes von Walter, Die ersten Wanderprediger Frankreichs, I: Robert von Arbrissel and II: Bernhard von Thiron; Vitalis von Savigny; Girald von Salles; Bemerkungen zur Norbert von Xanten und Heinrich von Lausanne 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1903-6) is still useful on the hagiography associated with several important French hermits, but see the more recent literature below under "new orders."

The greatest of the Italian hermits was Peter Damian, who was both hagiographer and saint: P. Dressler, Petrus Damiani: Leben und Werk (Rome, 1954) and Jean Leclercq, S. Pierre Damien, ermite et homme d'église (Rome, 1960); San Pier Damiano, nel IX centenario della morte (Cesena, 1972-73). More specifically on his hagiography, see Colin Phipps, "Romuald-model hermit: Eremitical Theory in Saint Peter Damian's Vita Beati Romuladi, chapters l6-27," Studies in Church History, 22 (1985), 65-77. On Italy also see Gregorio Penco, "L'eremitismo irregolare in Italia nei secoli XI-XII," Benedictina, 32 (1985), pp. 201-21; Francesco cardini, Leggenda di S. Galgano confessore (Forence, 1982); Fiorangelo Morrone, La "Legenda" del beato Giovanni eremita da Tufara (Parva hagiographica, 2; Naples, 1992).

On England, see Rotha Clay, The Hermits and Anchorites of England (London, 1914); Sharon Elkins, Holy Women in Twelfth-Century England (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988); Ann Warren, Anchorites and Their Patrons in Medieval England (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985). Our case study is a life of an English hermit. The main source for Christina of Markyate is The Life of Christina of Markyate, a Twelfth-Century Recluse, ed. and trans. C. H. Talbot (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959; reprint, 1991). Also see Robert Hanning, The Individual in the Twelfth-Century Romance (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977); Thomas Head, "The Marriages of Christina of Markyate," Viator, 21 (1990): 71-95; Christopher Holdsworth, "Christina of Markyate," in Medieval Women, ed. Derek Baker (Studies in Church History, Subsidia, 1; Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1978), pp. 185-204; Ruth Karras, "Friendship and Love in the Lives of Two Twelfth-Century English Saints," The Journal of Medieval History 14 (1988): 305-320;

New Saints in New Molds (3): The New Monastic Orders.

Vallambrosans. Sofia Boesch Gajano, "Storia e tradizione Vallonbrosane," Bullettino dell'Istituto storico Italiano, 76 (1964), pp. 99-215; P. Di Re, Giovanni Gualberto nelle fonti dei secoli XI-XII (Rome, 1974); A. Del'Innocenti, "Le vite antiche di Giovanni Gualberto," Studi Medievali, third series, 25 (1985), pp. 31-91.

Carthusians. A. Ravier, S. Bruno: le premier des ermites de Chartreuse (Paris, 1967).

Fontevraud. On the relationships between men and women in the order, see Penny Gold, "Male/Female Cooperation: The Example of Fontevrault," in Medieval Religious Women, 1: Distant Echoes, ed. John Nichols and Lillian Shank (Cistercian Studies Series, 71; Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1984), pp. 151-68 and Jacqueline Smith, "Robert of Arbrissel's Relations with Women," in Medieval Women, ed. Derek Baker (Studies in Church History, Subsidia, 1; Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1978), pp. 175-84; Suzanne Tunc, "Après la mort de Robert d'Arbrissel: Le conflit entre l'abbesse et l'évêque," Le Moyen Age, fifth series, 6 (1992), pp. 379-390. On Robert of Arbrissel himself, see J.-M. Bienvenu, L'Etonant fondateur de Fontevraud, Robert d'Arbrissel (Paris, 1981) and "Les deux vitae de Robert d'Arbrissel," in La littérature angevine médiévale (Paris, 1981), pp. 63-72; Jacques Dalarun, L'Impossible sainteté. La vie retrouvée de Robert d'Arbrissel (v. 1045-1116), fondateur de Fontrevraud (Paris, 1985) and Robert d'Arbrissel, fondateur de Fontevraud (Paris, 1986).

Savigny. J. J. van Moolenbroek, Vitalis van Savigny. Bronnen en vroege cultus (Amsterdam, 1982; FT as Vital l'ermite, prédicateur ininérant, fondateur de l'abbaye Normande de Savigny, trans. A.-M. Nambot [Paris, 1990]).

Cistercians. The best introduction in English is Louis Lekai, The Cistercians: Idals and Reality (Kent, Ohio, 1977). For further bibliography, see R. A. Donkin, A Check List of Printed Works Relating to the Cistercian Order (Rochefort, 1969). Generally on Cistercian saints, see M. Séraphin Lenssen, "Aperçu historique sur la vénération des saints Cisterciens dans l'ordre de Citeaux," Collectanea ordinis Cisterciensium reformatorum, 6 (1939), pp. 7-35 and 167-95, and 7 (1940), pp. 73-94, and 10 (1948), pp. 6-18. On Stephan harding, see H. E. J. Cowdrey, "'Quidam frater Stephanus nomine, Anglicus natione.' The English Background of Stephen Harding," Revue Benedictine, 101 (1991), pp. 322-40. On the hagiography for Bernard of Clairvaux, see Brian McGuire, The Difficult Saint: Bernard of Clairvaux and his Tradition (Kalamzoo, 1991); Adriaan Bredero, "The Canonization of Bernard of Clairvaux," in St. Bernard of Clairvaux, ed. M. B. Pennington (Cistercian Studies Series, 28; Kalamazoo, MI, 1977), pp. 63-100; Vies et legendes de saint Bernard de Clairvaux. Création, diffusion, reception (xii-xx siecles), ed. P. Arabeyre-Chard (Commentarii Cistercienses, Textes et documents, 5; Cîteaux, 1993).

On Bernard as hagiographer, see A. Gwynn, "St. Malachy of Armagh," Irish Ecclesiastical Record, (1948), pp. 961-78, (1949), 134-48 and 317-31; Hugh Lawlor, "Notes on St. Bernard's life of St. Malachy and his Two Sermons on the Passing of St. Malachy," Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 35 (1919), sect. C, no. 6, 230-64. On Aelred of Rievaulx, see F. M. Powicke, Ailred of Rievaulx and His Biographer Walter Daniel (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1922); Aelred Squire, Aelred of Rievaulx: A Study (London, 1969); Thomas Heffernan, "Sanctity in the Cloister: Walter Daniel's Vita Sancti Aelredi and Rhetoric," in Sacred Biography. Saints and Their Biographers in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1988), pp. 72-122. On other Cistercian saints, see H. Schwarzmaier, "Konrad von Urach, Abt von Clairvaux und Cîteaux, Kardinalbischof von Porto um 1177-1227," in Lebensbider aus Schwaben und Franken, 17 (1991), pp. 1-17.


One of the most important new developments in sanctity and hagiography during this period is the development of the ideal and practice of papal canonization. The basic survey of that development remains the outdated Eric Kemp, Canonization and Authority in the Western Church (Oxford, 1948), although even this survey did not fully replace the classic article by Stephan Kuttner, "La réserve papale du droit de canonisation," Revue historique de droit français et étranger, fourth series, 18 (1938), pp. 172-228. More up-to-date, but summary, account may be found in André Vauchez, La sainteté en occident aux derniers siècles du moyen âge d'après les procès de canonisation et les documents hagiographiques (Rome, 1981), pp. 13-69 and Bernhard Schimmelpfennig, "Heilige Päpste-päpstliche Kanonisationspolitik," in Jürgen Petersohn (ed.), Politik und Heiligenverehrung im Hochmittelalter (Vorträge und Forschungen, 42; Sigmaringen: Jan Thorbecke, 1994), pp. 73-100. A useful review of the evidence for the earlier traditions of episcopal authority is provided by Agostino Amore, "Culto e Canonizzazione dei Santi nell'antichitá Cristiana," in Antonianum, 52 (1977), pp. 38-80 and "La canonizazzione vescovile," Antonianum, 52 (1977), pp. 231-66. A full listing of the early evidence for papal canonization is provided by Jacobus Schlafke, De competentia in causis sanctorum decernandi a primis post Christum natum saeculis usque ad annum 1234 (Rome, 1961), although the analysis is perfunctory. Also see Marianne Schwarz, "Heiligsprechungen im 12. Jahrhundert und die Beweggründe ihrer Urheber," Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, 39 (1957), 43-62; Jakob Schlafke, "Das Recht der Bischöfe in 'Causis sanctorum' bis zum Jahre 1234," Die Kirche und ihre Amter und Stände: Festgabe für seine Eminenz den Hochwürdigsten Herrn Joseph Kardinal Frings (Cologne, 1960), pp. 417-33; Y. Garcia y Garcia, "A propos de la canonisation des saints au XIIe siècle," Revue de droit canonique, 17 (1968), pp. 3-15; Eberhard Demm, "Zur Rolle des Wunders in der Heiligkeitskonzeption des mittelalters," Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, 57 (1975), pp. 300-44; Jürgen Petersohn, "Die päpstliche Kanonisationsdelegation des 11. und 12. Jahrhunderts und die Heiligsprechung Karls des Grossen," Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Medieval Canon Law (Toronto, 1972) (Monumenta Iuris Canonici, series C, 5; Vatican City, 1976), pp. 163-206.

Studies of early and important cases of papal canonzation include: A. Heintz, "Der Heilige Simeon von Trier, seine Kanonisation und seine Reliquien," Festschrift Alois Thomas (Trier, 1967), pp. 163-73; Bernhard Scholz, "The Canonization of Edward the Confessor," Speculum 36 (1961), pp. 38-60; S. Tunberg, "Erik den helige, Sveriges helgenkonung," Fornvännen, 36 (1941), pp. 257-78; Arne Jönsson, "Saint Eric of Sweden-The Drunken Saint?" Analecta Bollandiana, 109, (1991), pp. 331-346; Jürgen Petersohn, "Die litterae Papst Innocenz III zur Heiligsprechung der Kaiserin Kunigunde (1200)," Jahrbuch für fränkische Landesforschung, 37 (1977), pp. 1-25; Stephan Kuttner, "St. Jon of Holar. Canon Law and Hagiography," Analecta Cracoviensia, 7 (1975), pp. 367-75; Robert Folz, "La Chancellerie de Frédéric Ier et la canonisation de Charlemagne," Le Moyen Age, 70 (1964), pp. 13-31; Etienne Delaruelle and Charles Higounet, "Réformes prégréoriennes en Comminges et canonisation de S. Bertrand," Annales du Midi, 61 (1948), pp. 152-7.

On the processes of officially sanctioning cults in the Christian east, see P. Peeters, "La Canonistion des saints dans l"Eglist rusee," Analecta Bollandiana, 33 (1914), pp. 380-420 and 38 (1920), pp. 172-6 and P. Peeters, "The Canonization of Saints in the Orthodox CHurch," The Christian east, 12 (1931), pp. 85-9.

Marriage and sanctity.

The literature on the law and practice of marriage in medieval Christianity is enormous. Trustworthy surveys are provided in James Brundage, Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe (Chicago, 1987); Jean Gaudemet, Le mariage en Occident. Les moeurs et le droit (Paris, 1987); Christopher Brooke, The Medieval Idea of Marriage (Oxford, 1989). For further guidance, see M. Sheehan and D. Scardalleto, Family and Marriage in Medieval Europe: A Working Bibliography (Vancouver, 1976).

Chaste marriages and lay sanctity. See particularly the new sutdy of Dyan Elliott, Spiritual Marriage: sExual abstinence in Medieval Wedlock (Princeton, 1993). Also see Baudouin de Gaiffier, "Intactam sponsam relinquens. A propos de la vie de s. Alexis," Analecta Bollandiana 65 (1947), pp. 157-195; Penny Gold, "The Marriage of Mary and Joseph in the Twelfth-Century Ideology of Marriage," in Sexual Practices and the Medieval Church, eds. Vern Bullough and James Brundage (Buffalo, 1982), pp. 102-117; André Vauchez, "Un nouvel idéal au XIIIe siècle: la chasteté conjugale," in idem, Les laïcs au moyen âge. Pratiques et expériences religieuses (Paris, 1987), pp. 203-209

Mystical marriage and monastic sanctity. The best summary is provided by Reginald Grégoire, "Il matrimonio mistico," in Il matrimonio nella società altomedievale, 2 vols. (Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi sull'alto medioevo, 24; Spoleto, 1977), 2: 701-794. For an interesting twist on the topos, see Caroline Bynum, "Jesus as Mother and Abbot as Mother: Some Themes in Twelfth-Century Cistercian Writing," in eadem, Jesus as Mother: Studies in the Spirituality of the High Middle Ages (Berkeley, 1982), pp. 110-169.

For a review of literature on the related topic of ecclesiastical celibacy, see Jean Gaudemet, "Le célibat ecclésiastique. Le droit et la practique du XIe au XIIIe siècles," Zeitschrift der Savigny Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, Kanonistiches Abteilung, 68 (1982), pp. 1-31.

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